The Dominant Dog – Dealing with Dominance in Dogs

What is a dominant dog?

Some people attribute all problem behaviors to “dominance“, while others do not want to use the “dominant dog” label at all. The truth, as always, is somewhere in-between.

It is useful to recognize dominant behaviors in our dog, so that we can better manage him, keep him safe, and set him up for success. Refusing to use the word dominance, or denying its existence in dogs, is unhelpful.

Any pack animal including humans and dogs, have to deal with dominance issues, because it is part of pack dynamics.

Similarly, trying to explain everything away by using the dominant dog label or excuse, is also unhelpful. To really fix a problem behavior, we want to fully understand it, and correctly identify its source. For example, a dog may show aggression because of dominance. However, dog aggression can also be the result of fear, stress, play, curiosity, boredom, or something else.

Dog Dominance

Dominance is a fluid concept.

Dogs are not dominant all of the time.

For example, many dogs will show greater dominance when they are on home turf, or when their owners are around. Under different circumstances, these same dogs may become less assertive, or may even become submissive.

Observe our dog carefully, and identify when he is more likely to show dominance, and why.

Dominance is a relative concept.

My Shiba Inu, for example, is more dominant than most dogs I have owned. He challenges me more frequently, and is constantly testing his boundaries. He has a dominant body posture, and he will not back down when challenged by other dogs.

My Siberian Husky, is a more submissive dog. She usually stops whatever she is doing, when I tell her to. She very quickly backs down, and uses submissive body language, when confronted by other dogs.

However, this does not mean that my Husky will always back down, or never show any dominance behavior. She simply prefers to avoid conflict, and has learned that she usually gets more, by seeking a peaceful resolution. I make sure to encourage this behavior, by rewarding calmness and conflict avoidance very well.

What is a Dominant Dog?

  1. A dominant dog will likely respond with aggression when he is frustrated, or when he feels threatened. He may also redirect that aggression onto us, if we try to physically engage him.
  2. A dominant dog is more forceful when it comes to fulfilling his own needs and goals. He is not afraid to challenge those around him, and to continually test his boundaries. My Shiba Inu is always testing to see if particular rules, such as the no getting on furniture rule, still hold true.
  3. A dominant dog is more likely to fight, and less likely to submit or run away. My Shiba Inu likes playing with other dogs, but he generally does not get along with dogs who try to dominate him. If challenged, he will not back down, and this can result in a dog fight.

Dealing with a Dominant Dog

1. Calm and decisive pack leader

Being angry and shouting at our dog, will only worsen his behavior. Fear and uncertainty will increase his level of stress, and cause him to behave in a more erratic fashion.

The best way to deal with a dominant dog is to remain calm, and firmly remove him from the environment or object, that is causing him to act out.

2. Avoid physical corrections

Contrary to common belief, physical force or physical corrections is NOT a good way to deal with dominant dogs. If not perfectly executed (with perfect timing, force, and technique), a physical correction may further frustrate our dog, and cause him to get more aggressive.

Instead, stay calm, keep physical interactions to a minimum, and quickly leave the stressful situation. In addition, using physical force against a dog, may end up teaching him the wrong lesson; in particular, use violence against violence.

True alpha dogs lead by controlling the pack’s resources. We can control our dog’s resources by following the NILIF (Nothing in Life is Free) program, and using reward obedience training.

3. Management and supervision

We want to step in and stop any aggressive behaviors, before our dog escalates and loses control. Prevention is key when dealing with a dominant dog. It stops him from practicing aggressive behaviors, and it enforces the important lesson that we are calm and in charge.

4. Consistent rules

To become a good pack leader, it is important to develop a set of house rules and some structure, for our dog to follow. Always be consistent with enforcing all of those rules.

My Shiba Inu’s most important house rules include –

5. Frequent obedience training sessions

Schedule at least two or more short (10 – 15 minutes) obedience training sessions with our dog, every day. It is a good idea to keep up with obedience exercises, throughout a dog’s life. This keeps him mentally sharp, and makes it clear that we are in charge.

6. Use proper equipment to control our dog

When dealing with aggression, safety should always be a primary concern.

Use whatever equipment is necessary, to keep all the people around our dominant dog safe. A drag lead may also be useful because it gives us good control of our dog, without having to lay hands on him or his collar, and without resorting to chasing games.

If our dog has a bite history, it may be necessary to use a muzzle. I like the basket muzzle because it does not overly constrain a dog’s mouth, and is more comfortable. A basket muzzle will still allow a dog to eat and pant.

Be careful not to aggravate our dog’s aggressive behavior by overly constraining him, and causing barrier frustration. When in doubt, consult a professional trainer.

7. Set our dog up for success

Try to minimize the number of dominant displays. Identify objects (e.g. other dogs, cats) and environmental conditions (e.g. loud noise) that trigger dominant behaviors, and avoid those triggers.

Then, gradually desensitize our dog to those events, in a controlled fashion.

Many dog behavioral issues, including resource guarding, biting people, dog-to-dog aggression, sensitivity to handling, growling at humans, and general disobedience, are often attributed to “the dominant dog”.

However, each of these problems are unique, and complex. They are usually the result of many factors, one of which may be dominance. In fact, many behavioral issues are the result of stress and fear, and have nothing whatsoever to do with dominance.

When dealing with dog behavioral issues, it is best to keep an open mind.

Observe our dog and his environment carefully. Identify the triggers for his aggressive behavior, and try to understand why he is responding in this way. If his aggression is extreme (e.g. he is breaking skin, and/or causing puncture wounds), hire a professional trainer to help us carefully trouble-shoot the problems.

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  1. Gina says

    Great blog. I am desperate now. I have 6 dogs total. 3 males, 3 females. 3 males are GSD, and 2 littermates that are malamute’gsd mix. Mon my one of my mal mixes, Atasi attacked Loki my GSD when Loki tried to correct him. Atasi doesn’t want to be under Loki, and this last fight was very damaging to Loki. He has a drain, stitches and an ulcer on his eye. They have gotten into fights before but not like this. The trigger is me. They all want my attention. This happened when I was playing with Loki. What can I do ? It’s not the first time Atasi has lashed out.

  2. Cheryl says

    I am desperate! I have a 6 yr old corgi female (Lexi) and a 2 yr old rescue female pup that we think is a Jack Russell/Whippet (Shay). Shay displayed dominant behavior towards Lexi at an early age. In puppy training classes however, she was always intimidated by other puppies, often hiding under the chairs, etc. We continued with socialization hoping it would help her overcome her shy behavior but now 2 years later, she still exhibits this and often displays her insecurity around other dogs by growling and barking aggressively.

    Our biggest issue continues to be with Lexi. Out of nowhere, Shay will attack Lexi and they will fight until we as a family break them up. Neither will back down and I feel we are watching a professional dog fight until the death. All family members have been bit trying to break up the fights and recently it has become so vicious that Lexi has been rushed to the vet for stitches in her neck. We cannot find what triggers these attacks, they are so random and they can go 6 months at a time without any issue. Recently, the attacks have become more frequent with 3 fights in the last 5 days. Today, Lexi was so battered that she had additional stitches and is completely traumatized. Let me also say our attempts to break them up include, air horns, cans of pennies, water, throwing towels over them to try to grab them apart, hitting with brooms, etc. We are afraid that the corgi will be killed at the rate this is going and let me say, there are times, when the corgi will start the fight especially if a drop of food accidently drops on the ground. Outside of this, the two of them play nicely, lick each other with affection, lay on the beds with each other –all without incident. We love both but don’t know what to do any longer. We have met with a trainer today who suggested we put on a muzzle on Shay especially since Lexi is healing from her punctures and stitches. He then will introduce a shock collar and begin working with her. This concerns our whole family–the shock collar. We will begin further training but I am concerned that the trainer will not be able to provide a solution to help our family.

    Any feedback is welcome and so much appreciated!


    • shibashake says

      Dogs aggression can be the result of many things, including fear, guarding resources (food, toys, affection, area), frustration, pain, and more. This ASPCA article has more on different types of aggression.

      More on dog dominance and bad behaviors.

      This article from Sophia Yin has more on dealing with dominance aggression.

      With my dogs, management and supervision are extremely important. I set up a fixed routine, clear dog-to-dog interaction rules, and a very consistent way of communication. I supervise closely during times of interaction, so that I can redirect undesirable behaviors *before* things escalate. I put a leash on my new dog, if necessary (Only with a regular collar and only under supervision. Absolutely no aversive collars), so that I can quickly and effectively control her.

      In this way, my dogs know exactly what to expect from each other, what to expect from me, and what I expect from them in return. Management, supervision, structure, and consistency will create greater certainty, and certainty will help to reduce stress and conflicts.

      The more structured and successful experiences my dogs have, the more confidence, trust, and positive associations they form. Similarly, reactive experiences will undermine that confidence and trust, set back the rehabilitation process, and worsen their future behavior. Therefore, one of the most important things in helping my dogs get along, is to carefully manage their environment and *not* expose them to situations that will trigger a reactive/aggressive response. For example, if my dog guards food and other resources, I make sure that when my dogs are together, there are absolutely no resources around that will trigger a conflict.

      At the same time, I help them with their resource issue in a structured way, through desensitization and counter-conditioning.

      As you have described, dog fights are dangerous to everyone, are difficult to stop, and leads to more fights down the road. Therefore, prevention is best. If I cannot closely supervise, I keep my new dog separated from my other dogs. I absolutely do not leave my dogs together unsupervised, until I am totally sure that there will be no issues.

      During times of supervised interaction, I manage their environment so as to ensure success. I use management equipment such as leashes, gates, and more, to ensure that everyone (human and canine) stays safe.

      Shock collars are risky to begin with, and even more so in this type of situation where there is already frequent fighting. This article has more on shock collars and their associated risks. Even trainers who use shock collars for training *do not* recommend their use in a dog fight.

      The dog training field is not well regulated, so finding a good trainer can often be very challenging. These articles have good information on how to go about evaluating a trainer.

      Given what you describe, I would look for a trainer who understands dog behavior and desensitization training. With my dogs, I find someone who can help me identify the source of their reactive behavior. In this way, I can address the root issues, and help them be more comfortable with each other, rather than just suppressing symptoms with pain based techniques. Applying frequent shocks to my dog in the presence of another dog, will likely cause her to form more negative associations with other dogs, which is not the result that I desire.

      In the meantime, I would also keep my dogs separated unless under very close and structured supervision, in a managed environment. I.e., in a situation where I had very good control over them, and can easily and quickly prevent escalation into a fight if necessary.

  3. TP says


    I have a 11 weeks old male shiba-Kobie. I’ve been trying to socialize him as much as possible with other people, kids, and dogs. He loves people and especially kids, however, he has some problems with other dogs, especially my friend’s new labradoodle pup. I brought him over the other day and spent a night there in hope that Kobie can get along with this pup. They were doing great at first, very calm and gentle, but once we got into her house, both dogs got into a fight. I separated them several times when the play got escalated, but after the whole night, they still couldn’t get along. I knew that Kobie wanted to play, but somehow, they both couldn’t control themselves. Kobie did bit and left a scratch on the lab pup’s nose. Me? I got very frustrated! Though, when I brought Kobie to meet my other friend’s dogs, a frenchie and a pug, all three of them loved playing together.
    Kobie is a very calm, gentle, and quiet shiba. He gets freak out when he hears strange noises and barked at loud and sudden noises. The labradoodle pup is a barker, he barked at everything for no specific reasons and a bit dog territory with his space, pen, and food. Kobie is not, he seemed to be ok sharing toys and food with the pup at her house (I have not tested it out in our house yet). My friend and I decided to bring them down to a mutual ground, her backyard, where the lab had not been to yet. Then, they were playing fine. However, Kobie did not want to leave the pup alone, he kept chasing the poor baby. We are good friends so I felt very bad putting her pup through such a stressful play date.
    Kobie has been taught to be a soft mouth shiba, he does bite but never leave marks on people, but this lab pup. However, the lab pup bit and nibbled everything, including me, he left a bloody mark on my hand while I was trying to calm him down. I observed Kobie when the lab pup was locked in his exercise pen, what did he do? He was such an evil child, he played dirty by biting the lab pup through the pen!
    I brought him out once again yesterday to PetSmart for a check up. He met this 10 month old dog who kept barking at him, after 2 minutes, Kobie started being aggressive with barking and biting. However, when we walked him and met a little quiet pup, he was so nice and gentle playing with it. That pup’s owners were like “we have a neighbor who owns a shiba too, but that shiba does not socialize well with dogs, we did not expect yours to be so calm like this!” Then, I realized Kobie does not like vocal dogs! And, he gets aggressive when other dogs bite hard on him.
    Now that I’ve understood Kobie, I still want to control his aggression toward vocal dogs. Also, Kobie got the idea of barking is good when playing after the night with this labradoodle. He barked at his bff frenchie the other day while playing which he never done so before. I really want to stop that and teach him to be himself again!!! In addition, I really wish that Kobie could get along with the lab because my friend and I are very good friends. The lab is going to puppy training class soon. I was gonna enroll Kobie in one, but I just rethink about this because I feel that it’s too expensive and they only teach simple commands like “sit” “stay” “come” which Kobie has now mastered. We only have some hiccups with the “stay”, but other than that, he’s doing pretty good with the rest including “hand” “high five” “up” and “sit” for food or get out of crate.
    Could you please give me some suggestions on how to help Kobie deal with vocal dogs, loud noises, and no barking while playing? I don’t want him to grow up to be aggressive. I’ve been very strict and consistent with him, but I think that I did not do it well when I brought him over to the lab’s house. Also, should I still take him to training classes? I still take him out to meet my friends, other dogs, parks, playgrounds, shopping stores, etc. so he does have plenty of socialization. I just don’t want him to learn bad manners from other dogs.

    Thank you for your time.


    • shibashake says

      The key with socializing my Shiba Inu with other dogs is to set him up for success. The more successful experiences that Sephy has with other dogs, the more confidence & trust he gains, and the more positive associations he forms. Similarly, negative experiences will undermine that confidence & trust, significantly set back training, and increase the likelihood of more reactive behavior in the future.

      To set Sephy up for success, I do several things-
      1. I pick his playmates carefully.

      2. I set up clear dog-to-dog interaction rules and I supervise very closely during play-time and others times of interaction. As soon as I notice the *start* of any anti-social behavior, I no-mark and redirect. In this way, I stop undesirable behaviors *before* they escalate into anything more serious. Prevention is best.

      3. I manage my dogs’ excitement level by using play breaks. I tend to err on the safe side and throw in many play-breaks so that nobody gets over-excited and nobody gets overwhelmed. If a dog looks like he is getting overwhelmed, I stop play right away. I want to ensure that everyone follows my rules, everyone practices good play manners, and everyone has a positive, or at worst, neutral experience. More on what I do during play-time.

      4. I manage Sephy’s play environment carefully. Sephy does best in structured and smaller playgroups. Dog parks did *not* work well for him. More on our dog park experiences.

      5. I protect my dogs and do not expose them to bad greetings or situations that they are not ready for yet. Most of the time, I create neutral experiences and teach my dogs to ignore other dogs. I only do greetings in cases where I am very sure that my dog will have a positive and successful experience.
      More on the friendly dog.

      6. When Sephy was young, I also did dog-to-dog desensitization exercises to raise his reactivity threshold to other dogs. We also did SIRIUS puppy classes which focuses on puppy socialization exercises. This was very helpful, because it exposed Sephy to different puppies and different people, but all in a structured and very well managed environment. For proper socialization, it is important to find a good class, which specializes in socialization exercises, and with instructors who understand the science of dog behavior (operant conditioning, desensitization, positive socialization).
      ASPCA article on how to evaluate trainers.

      ASPCA article on puppy socialization.
      More on dog socialization.

  4. Amanda says


    I have a 9mth old rotti X (bella) and 4mth old rotti (axel). Axel is good with people, and is fine with most dogs, but when there are other puppies around and he starts playing, he goes from playing to very aggressive growling and i think dominance very quickly. He does growl when he plays, which is fine, but it always seems to escalate to a worryingly level. He doesn’t act aggressively with older dogs, and is seems okay with puppies when he meets them. When he starts growling loudly etc and I Try to remove him, it just makes it worse and he grows louder and try’s to get to the other puppy. He went to puppu school (12weeks) and the trainer said he attacked another puppy (he didn’t hurt it, but did lunge and growl and bite). I had a behaviourist come to the house and he said axel is just playing and very vocal. It’s hard to know what’s playing and if he is getting aggressive. I worry that he will get big and continue to bully and be rough with puppies, or even other dogs when he gets older.

    Any suggestions would be great


    • shibashake says

      What did the behaviorist suggest?

      With my dogs, I set up very clear dog-to-dog interaction rules, including very clear play rules. What I have noticed with my Shiba Inu is that play starts getting rough when he becomes over-excited. Therefore, I always supervise closely during play-time and I manage my dogs’ excitement level by throwing in many play-breaks (i.e. redirecting their attention back onto me). The key is to interrupt early, *before* my dog becomes too reactive and can no longer listen to me.

      My dogs love to wrestle, play rough, and one of my Sibes is very vocal. This is all fine. However, it is also important to set up structure, consistent rules, and teach good play manners. Supervision and management are key. I redirect any anti-social behavior as soon as it starts (before it escalates) and set my dogs up for success. I also choose my dog’s playmates very carefully. When in doubt, I err on the side of caution and throw in a play-break. Removing my dog too late can lead to frustration and redirected aggression.
      More on what I do during play-time.

      I also did dog-to-dog desensitization exercises with my Shiba Inu to raise his reactivity threshold.

      When my pups were young, we did SIRIUS puppy classes. These puppy classes specifically focused on positive play and socialization, so they were really great.
      ASPCA article on puppy socialization.
      More on dog socialization.

      I find that a big part of training with my dogs involves reading their body language as well as timing my interrupts and redirects properly. These were things that a good professional trainer/behaviorist helped me with. However, the dog training field is not well regulated. We went through a bunch of so-so and not very good trainers, before I learned enough to pick out the good ones, who had both the theoretical training as well as practical experience.
      How I picked my dog’s trainer.

  5. Sandra says

    I have a 3 yr old mixed dog called Mika; staffy, rottweiler, lab and dog de bordeux. We got her as a puppy to keep our pointer company. Unfortunately, he died 3 months after being diagnosed with cancer when Mika was 2. When she came into season, our vet told us not to worry about keeping them seperate as he was on very strong chemo. Some how, his will to leave a legacy was strong and managed to get her pregnant. 6 months on, after having kept 2 of her puppies, she has developed a protective nature when meeting a new dog. She forces it to submit. No biting. We have been very suprised as she was very docile before. There are no triggers. We have a lot of dogs that we walk with and she is used to large groups of dogs playing around her. When she attacks, the other dog is not really doing anything, no aggression or even paying attention. She is normally off the lead when we’re in the park. Once she has a reaction, I pull her away and make her heel. Another thing I should mention is that she is extremely ball orientated. We’ve all been trying to notice a patternbut can not find one. I’m not really sure what I should do and would greatly appreciate any advice you could offer. Thank you!

    • shibashake says

      What do you mean by attack? Does she charge and push the other dog down? What happens when the other dog does not want to submit? Is the other dog close-by or far away? Has she attacked any of the dogs from her group, or only new dogs at the park? Is there a particular type of dog that she attacks? Larger dog, dogs of a certain breed, high energy dogs, younger dogs, etc.? Has she done any damage to other dogs? How many dogs are in the walking group? Are her puppies in the group? How is her recall? Does she stay with the walking group?

      My Shiba Inu was pretty reactive to other dogs. He gets over-excited and wants to meet every dog he sees at the park. This can be dangerous for him, because not all dogs want to meet new dogs, and some dogs may get aggressive when another dog comes into their space uninvited. I keep Sephy on-leash when we go walking, at the park, neighborhood, etc.

      At the same time, I do dog-to-dog desensitization exercises, to raise his reactivity threshold and to help him be more relaxed around other dogs. We do desensitization training in a structured environment, with trainer chosen dogs, and under the direction of a trainer.

      More on how we did dog-to-dog desensitization exercises with Sephy.

      I always try to set Sephy up for success, and not expose him to situations where he may go reactive. The more positive or neutral experiences that he has with other dogs, the more trust he builds, and the more relaxed he becomes. Similarly, reactive experiences and behaviors will erode that trust, build negative associations with other dogs, and worsen his behavior.

      We go walking on quiet, less popular trails, during off-hours, so that there are very few new dogs around. I carefully manage his environment, so that I do not expose him to more than he can handle.

      A good trainer can help with desensitization and also in identifying the triggers that cause reactive behavior in a dog.

  6. Tasha says

    So I have a mastiff mix. I got her from the shelter when she was just about year and, by my best guess, had recently weaned a litter of puppies. She did great in the face to face with my boxer and we brought her home. She did great when she met our friend’s dog, whom we now live with, the two of them still get a little heated every now and then, but they are both around the same age and have very dominant personalities. I used to be able to take my mastiff to petsmart and walk her around other dogs with no problem, ever since we moved she has become a terror when other dogs are around during our walks. She is on a gentle leader so she flings herself around essentially by her nose and screams like she’s being hurt and will not respond to any of my verbal cues, frankly it’s probably horrific to witness. She almost caused a fight with a large male shepherd I was attempting to introduce her too and he’s a very well balanced, mature dog. It’s been such a rapid change I have no clue what triggered it or where to begin to stop it. She has made improvements as far as walking past dogs barking in houses, but this behavior is unacceptable.

    • shibashake says

      Moving to a new environment can be very stressful for a dog. Suddenly everything is different, there is great uncertainty, which leads to anxiety and fear.

      When we moved, I set up a fixed routine for my Shiba right away, that is as close as possible to his previous routine. I also establish the same consistent set of house rules. Routine and consistency helps to create certainty. I also give him good outlets for his stressful energy. He likes exploring, so we go walking on quiet trails, during off-hours, when there are not very many people or dogs about. Usually it is just us, so it is fun and relaxing for him.

      As for meeting other dogs, I make sure to always take things slowly and go at a pace that Sephy is comfortable with. Most of the time, we don’t even meet the dogs, but just ignore and create neutral experiences.

      The more positive and calm experiences that Sephy has, the more confidence he gains, and the more positive associations he forms with other dogs. Similarly, negative or reactive events will undermine that confidence, significantly set back retraining, and worsen his behavior.

      Therefore, I always try to set Sephy up for success by managing his environment, creating neutral experiences, and not exposing him to situations he is not yet ready to handle. We did a lot of dog-to-dog desensitization exercises when he was young, and that was very helpful. We did the exercises in a controlled environment, with trainer chosen dogs, and under the direction of a trainer. We started from a very far distance and only moved closer when Sephy was ready for it. The important thing is to make the sessions short, positive, calm, and very rewarding.

      More on how I deal with dog-to-dog reactivity during walks.
      More on dog socialization.

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