Cesar Millan is host of The Dog Whisperer, a popular dog training show on the National Geographic channel.
Millan has a charismatic personality, and his show is very entertaining. As a result, he has made The Dog Whisperer into a big favorite among dog owners everywhere, and his many fans implement his techniques on their family dogs and puppies.
However, there are some who feel that his techniques are risky, and inappropriate for novice trainers (most pet owners).
In this article, I examine Millan’s approach and discuss some of its pros and cons.
Cesar Millan – The Good
1. Cesar Millan educates people on being a good pack leader.
To be a good pack leader, Millan talks about setting rules and boundaries for our dog. This includes door manners, and always walking our dog slightly behind us. He also emphasizes the importance of maintaining calm and assertive energy, which made a huge difference with my Shiba Inu.
Since dogs live in a human world, we need to provide them with a degree of structure, so that they feel safe, and so that they do not inadvertently harm others or themselves. They also need a balanced leader who is able to protect them, and show them how to behave in unfamiliar or stressful situations.
These messages are extremely important, especially in this day and age, where owners have a tendency to spoil their dogs and let them do whatever they want. Untrained and unmanaged dogs often become stressed, frustrated, and ultimately develop behaviors that are dangerous to the people around them. In the end, they are surrendered or destroyed because nobody taught them how to behave in a human world.
2. Cesar Millan gets people to fulfill their dogs’ needs, not just their own.
Most of us are very aware of how dogs help us live happier and fuller lives. What is often forgotten, is that dogs have needs of their own.
Millan talks about understanding a dog’s needs, and helping him be a well-balanced canine through dog exercise and dog discipline. He shows us that after our dog burns some energy, he is more calm and well-behaved.
Given the unrealistic expectations of dogs that are propagated by some Hollywood movies, it is helpful to have a popular spokesperson spread this message about considering a dog’s needs, to audiences everywhere.
3. Cesar Millan shows us that dogs can be retrained regardless of breed and background.
Some dog breeds have developed a really bad reputation, especially the Pit Bull Terrier. Millan does a good job of showing us that all dogs can be rehabilitated, whatever their breed or history.
His own pack consists of many Pit Bulls and Rottweilers, which he uses to help retrain other dogs. These wonderful ambassadors are calm, balanced, and very non-reactive, even when faced with extremely hyper dogs.
Sadly, there are a large number of Pitties in shelters today, who have a difficult time finding homes because people are afraid to adopt them. Millan and his sidekick Junior, do great things to combat the negativity associated with the breed.
His message that every dog can be rehabilitated, gives hope to people with difficult dogs, and reduces the number of shelter surrenders. This hopeful message may also encourage people to adopt shelter dogs, and give them a second chance.
4. Cesar Millan uses his pack of dogs to teach other dogs and improve their behavior.
Millan shows us that the best teacher for a dog, is often another dog.
While we may try and learn canine body language, we will never be as adept at using it as another dog. Of course the furry teacher must be calm and very balanced.
When looking for a trainer, try to find one who understands dog psychology, has a good rapport with our dog, and has well-behaved canine assistants who can help with training.
Cesar Millan – The Bad
1. Cesar’s Way or the highway.
Cesar Millan has an extremely confident, charismatic, and alpha personality that makes him very successful. Unfortunately, a side-effect of this, is that people may just follow his techniques and not explore other alternatives.
His emphasis on large breed, aggressive dogs, as well as his frequent use of aversive methods, perpetuates some inaccurate myths on dog training, including:
- You cannot train large breed dogs with non-aversive methods.
- You cannot train aggressive dogs with non-aversive methods.
Because he is so widely watched, and so widely recommended by dog breeders, owners, and other dog professionals, there is a huge network effect that propagates and perpetuates these myths. This can lead to widespread tunnel vision, that ultimately does a disservice to dogs, especially dogs that are incorrectly diagnosed with dominant behavior. Misdiagnosing a problem behavior, leads to administering the wrong treatment, which may worsen our dog’s conduct and lower his quality of life.
Non-aversive methods that center around the control of resources are safer, and often more effective at addressing problem dog behaviors, including aggression. There are many trainers who have successfully rehabilitated aggressive dogs by only using resource control techniques.
I think that Millan can combat some these misconceptions by always reminding his audience to keep an open mind, and to use a wider range of techniques in his Dog Whisperer program.
2. Greater emphasis on owner discipline.
Cesar Millan greatly emphasizes dog discipline, but he is a lot less strict with their owners. Dogs with problem behaviors need a lot of attention. Frequently, owners must put in a lot of time and effort to help their dogs reach a happier and more balanced state.
The format of The Dog Whisperer program is such that Millan has to show results quickly, so that it is interesting and engaging. Often times, there is a timer which shows how he solves a problem in minutes (5-15 minutes), that will actually take a lot of hard work to truly become a learned behavior.
Even though Millan may sometimes say that changing a dog’s behavior takes time, his Dog Whisperer program shows the opposite.
This is in contrast to shows like It’s Me or the Dog, where there is a lot more emphasis on owner participation in the dog rehabilitation process, and the unfortunate consequences that may occur when owners fail to put in the effort.
3. More discussion on dog training equipment.
Cesar Millan does advise his clients to put a dog’s collar high-up on the neck, close to the head and ears. He will occasionally use his Illusion Collar to keep a choke chain from sliding down a dog’s neck.
Frequently however, he just goes with whatever the owner is using, thereby implicitly agreeing with the owner’s dog equipment choice. Given that Millan is the expert, it would be helpful to have more of a discussion on the pros and cons of dog training equipment.
Aversive collars such as prong collars and choke chains, should not be left on a dog for long periods of time. They should be put on for a walk or a training session, and removed otherwise. Definitely remove an aversive collar when our dog is off-leash, especially when he is interacting with other dogs. A choke chain may get caught while a dog is playing or running around, which may result in injury or death.
Prolonged use of choke chains may cause injury, even if applied correctly. For safety, only use an aversive collar for a limited amount of time (several weeks). Then, switch back to a flat collar once our dog understands the rules of walking.
The Illusion Collar is a modified choke collar, and the associated risks should at least be mentioned.
4. Explore other forms of pack leadership.
Since our dogs live in our very human world, it is important for us to lead and guide them. However, an important corollary question is what type of leader we should be.
Cesar Millan seems to support something more akin to a dictatorship, where everything the leader says goes, and not following a rule, brings about some kind of disciplinary action whether it be a leash correction, a finger poke, or an alpha roll. The dog is always expected to walk close-to, but behind the human, and there is very little stopping to smell the roses.
Between a dictatorship and no leadership is a wide range of other possibilities. Note that the term dictatorial is used here to refer to type of leadership; nothing more and nothing less. A dictatorial leader is one who makes all the decisions, does not allow others to question those decisions, and will administer swift punishment to those who do not comply with his demands. Here is the dictionary definition –
Asserting or tending to assert one’s authority or to impose one’s will on others.
In terms of leadership, we want to at least consider how much control over our dog’s behavior is truly necessary. Try to take into account our own temperament, and the temperament of our dog, to determine the best type of relationship and human-dog bond.
5. Highlight the dangers of aversive dog training.
Cesar Millan uses a variety of aversive training methods, including alpha rolls, leash jerks, and finger pokes. He often tells owners that these techniques are only used to get a dog’s attention, and that they do not cause the dog any pain or stress. It is often implied that these techniques are appropriate and humane because wolves do that to other wolves, or dogs do that to other dogs.
Both of these statements are not very accurate.
All aversive methods cause an unpleasant sensation, otherwise they would not work. Some aversive techniques may cause pain, stress, and fear in a dog, which is why the dog avoids that behavior in the future.
Aversive training can also backfire if not performed with the proper amount of force, timing, and redirection. When not executed in exactly the right way, these methods can cause additional behavioral problems in dogs, including aggression.
This University of Pennsylvania 2009 study shows that at least 25% of the dogs that are trained with confrontational methods exhibit aggression during training.
Given Millan’s popularity, there are a large number of people who follow his techniques, just from watching The Dog Whisperer program on television. To prevent widespread misuse, it is important to at least inform his audience of the specific risks and dangers associated with dominance and pain-based methods.
As a dog owner, I would like accurate information on obedience training, rather than sugar coated versions.
For those who continue to insist that aversive conditioning is not unpleasant, here are two dictionary definitions of the term aversive.
Causing avoidance of a thing, situation, or behavior by using an unpleasant or punishing stimulus, as in techniques of behavior modification.
~~[The American Heritage Dictionary]
Tending to avoid or causing avoidance of a noxious or punishing stimulus.
Thank You for Your Comments
I would like to thank everyone for leaving comments and participating in this discussion. You have made me think a lot about dogs, dog relationships, training, and how to solve problem behaviors.
Many people feel strongly about this topic because they love their dogs very much, and want what is best for them. This is why there is a lot of controversy surrounding Cesar Millan, and the aversive training methods that he uses. I have noticed however, that he is using fewer such methods in his more recent episodes, and is using a bit more reward training, which I think is a really good thing.
Some people consider aversive methods to be dog cruelty. That is a moral judgment, which is best left to the theologians.
I started out with Cesar Millan’s aversive techniques.
When I tried to switch over to non-aversive training, many so-called positive trainers, called me all sorts of names, including cruel and harsh. Luckily, there were some that gave me good advice, and resource methods ultimately worked out very well for my dogs. Now, I predominantly use resource control techniques, but messages about exercise, discipline, and energy still apply whichever approach we use.
This article is about gathering information and having discussions about dog behavior and dog training. Through discussion and sharing information, we can make better decisions for our dogs. Please help to create a discussion friendly environment by staying away from personal attacks.
Personal attacks or ad hominem arguments are not only pointless, but they also discourage rational discourse and the exchange of ideas.
An ad hominem (Latin for “to the man”), short for argumentum ad hominem, is an argument made personally against an opponent, instead of against the opponent’s argument. Ad hominem reasoning is normally described as an informal fallacy, more precisely an irrelevance.
A very common ad hominem is –
“You are only saying this because you are jealous/mean/prejudiced.”
I believe that we do not need to reject everything that Cesar Millan says just because there are some things we disagree with. Similarly, we do not need to follow everything that Cesar Millan says, just because there are some things we agree with.
It is most important to keep an open mind, evaluate techniques objectively, and to listen to our dog.
Interesting Articles on Cesar Millan
- American Humane Association: ‘Dog Whisperer’ Training Approach More Harmful Than Helpful.
- The Anti-Cesar Millan: Ian Dunbar.
- The New York Times: "Pack of Lies".
- Dog Whisperer to Critics: My Techniques Are "Instinctual"
- The New Yorker: What the Dog Saw by Malcolm Gladwell.
- Wikipedia: Cesar Millan.
Cesar Millan Discussion Threads
- Yelp: Cesar Millan dog ‘rehabilitating’ techniques inhumane? (good mix of Cesar positive and negative)
- Dogster (mostly Cesar positive)
- I Remember Love Forum (mostly Cesar positive)
- Dog Explorer (mostly Cesar negative)
Linda Dorris says
I feel Caesar for the most part has the correct idea. I don’t feel he likes to use aversion discipline on the dogs. I do feel that TV shows make someone look like someone they are not. Thus folks who watch any show feel the main star is that very same way in his personal life. This is very incorrect. They are human just like the rest of us. I feel after watching these magical changes folks misinterpret his behavior. Yes drama makes a good TV show that is why folks watch it. Some are even unhappy if he sucessessfully keeps one dog from tearing the other’s apart. You perhaps could suggest that the commentator on his show tells folks the message needed that Caesar does not have the time to do. If you notice 99%of the time his hands are full with a dog. I stead of burning anyone at the stake, perhaps some readjustments be made and the media beingore honest about what he is trying to do. It pretty tough to stop right in the middle of holding a dog that is trying to bite you to comment to the viewers. People need to remember as I said, he is human just like us. He makes positive progress and mistakes. All of us do. Please don’t lay it all at his feet. As he is not the super human the media makes him out to be. Not human just like Dr
Phil, Oz, Operah etc. Personally I will never shock my dog not use a spike collar. I can not abide by inflicting pain in any living being.
A couple of things. not sure how many episodes of his programmes you’ve watched but there isn’t one I’ve not seen. He does repeatedly say that his way is not the only way. The only thing I can see being taken atall derogatory towards other methods is when he points out that he’s working with a dog that other trainers have written off as unfixable and I don’t really see that as derogatory just a statement of fact. There is an episode where he works with a family’s existing dog trainer (reward based) to help her fix the problems he never judges her and he lets her lead. He himself invites other trainers and specialists in on a number of cases it’s what I love about him his pride never stops him doing what he thinks is best for that particular dog and he’s so open minded. He treats every case as individual and fits the behaviours to the family’s lifestyle to the best of his ability. I truly don’t see what he does as harsh and I’m an obsessive animal lover violence to me is an act of anger and he has the patience of a saint the touch he gives is just that a touch to redirect for me the proof is in the pudding and as much as I’m well aware you don’t see behind the scenes kids and dogs cannot curb behaviours for cameras they don’t know how to lie and even when corrected I have never seen any of his dogs cower from him or go tense at his voice (and yes I’ve seen the way abused dogs react) my biggest problem is people thinking they can be him if they adapt his ‘method’ the genius of cesar is he has no method has never claimed to he has something that is very hard to teach GOOD INSTINCTS. My mum watches him and thinks she’s equipped to take on anything (not the brightest tool in the box lol) she’s dangerous because she can’t read situations or dogs but thinks if she does the same things as him she’ll get the same results but that’s hardly his fault!! me?? Well I like to think I have fairly good instincts (after all I’m a very Instinct lead person in everything I do so it sucks if I don’t lol ) and I have a very well behaved loving happy dog and daughter to prove it. But I don’t make the mistake of thinking I’m cesar I wouldn’t dream of doing the things he does simply because I’m not that good lol and that’s ok for me his programmes are full of helpful suggestions and eye opening moments and just like he adapts what he does for the person and the dog I adjust it to fit my abilities my lifestyle and my dog and it’s worked I’m not saying it’s the answer for everyone but then neither does he!!!!
I am in the process of adopting a 5 month old German Pinscher, and I’m trying to prepare myself with as many good resources as possible. I really appreciate your article here, because it is not obsessed with just one side of the issue. Caesar’s work is amazing, and I appreciate that you acknowledge his skill while pointing out that his way isn’t the only one, and we are not experts like he is.
I don’t think I have the skill to use the methods he does, and I think that with such a young dog I can immediately establish more positive and resource-based training techniques to gain her trust and obedience.
All that to say, I have really appreciated the information I’ve gleaned so far from your website. Thank you so much!!
Thank you Anna and four paws up for adopting a dog in need!
I think there is no place in training in scaring or hurting a dog – does Cesar Milan do this? I’ve seen him stare out a dog to try and ‘dominate it’. So outdated and clearly not an understanding of dog behaviour. He sells a harness called the Pack Leader – that just says it all really.
Our dogs don’t live in a wolf pack, I am not dominant over my dog and if we spent more time trying to understand them and not putting human emotions on our dogs (if you ever see the amount of ‘guilty face’ dog videos online this is one example just there). The one dog that’s had over 40 million views is doing a submissive grin. Its not feeling bad its done anything wrong but just is worried of its owners reaction, trying to calm the situation.
Perhaps so many ‘so called’ positive trainers get so annoyed is because they can see the harm he is forcing on dogs all over the world. Thanks National Geographic for bringing him to our screens!
Even though dogs have feelings, they’re not like human feelings, they don’t act it behave like humans. In fact, dogs are still animals, specifically canines, and even though they aren’t “wolves,” they indeed are still pack animals, and have certain biological behaviors.
As for Cesar, his methods may not be for everyone, but there’s no room for harsh criticism to the point where he’s vilified, and completely dismissed, because you may not agree with his methods.
Great article. Balanced. A lot of trainers on the internet focus on Caesar’s violent and misguided influence on pet owners. But there’s not many shows that tell people in a nice, engaging way that freaking out over a barking, aggressive or insecure dog is going to make it worse. Calm people are more likely to have calm dogs and pet owners with consistent rules are more likely to have well behaved dogs. And even though Caesar uses a lot of wolf-dog analogies (technically incorrect), most of his practical advice boils down to teaching the owner calm consistent behaviors to help the dog get better, also that a well-exercised dog doesn’t have the energy to make trouble.
Victoria Stiwell was also really good at that, and her methods focused on more gentle, positive-reinforcements, and consistent owner diligence, but she wasn’t as much of a commercial success. She had a great show, the better episodes were the ones based in the UK, as her kinda sharp humor fit better there. Americans can sometimes take criticism of how they treat their furry babies too personally, much like the american translation of Supernanny.
Victoria may have been less of a commercial success than Ceasar, because her episodes show long, hard work with a dog, while Ceasar’s episodes are much more dramatic and are edited to provide the audience with instant gratification.
I would like to add that the “Cesar’s way or the highway” is an attitude of some of his followers, not the attitude of Cesar himself.
Each episode of Dog Whisperer begins with advising the viewer to consult a professional-not Cesar, but whatever good professionals are in the viewer’s area, and in one of the interviews that this very site links to, Cesar explicitly states that his way is not the only way, and that there are many good dog experts out there.
That being said, he could state that more frequently in his shows. However, there are plenty of episodes where he advises the owners to utilize the help of a local dog trainer.
Jane Morse says
I adopted a boxer mix a month ago from the Humane Society with nothing as far as history. Whoever had her before crate, house and leash trained her. She is a wonderful, calm, quiet, gentle dog until another dog or kid on a scooter is around. Then she whines, lunges, barks, snaps, bites and tries to get off her leash. We are trying to reinforce the ‘leave it’ concept without using a pinch collar. She also tries to take off after other 4-footed animals, including deer, chipmunks, squirrels and rabbits. She has about ripped my arm off my shoulder with her lunges and jumps. What kinds of training can I do for the aggression and the hunting behaviors?
Couple of articles that I like on “chase” training-
My take on the “squirrel instinct”.
What I do for dog-to-dog reactivity.
Big hugs to your Boxer girl!
It might not be aggression, but based on the description of him wanting to run after four legged animals, it seems they have a strong prey drive, which means it is possible that he will see other house pets as prey. Have you tried redirecting her attention. If so, did it work or was she completely blind to the attempt? That could give you a hint about their level of aggression.